Saturday, May 23, 2020
The Charleston was a very popular dance of the 1920s enjoyed by both young women (flappers) and young men of the Roaring 20s generation. The CharlestonÃ involves the fast-paced swinging of the legsÃ and bigÃ arm movements. The Charleston became popular as a dance after appearing along with the song The Charleston, by James P. Johnson, in the Broadway musicalÃ Runnin WildÃ in 1923. The 1920s and the Charleston In the 1920s, young men and women shed the stodgy etiquette and moral codes of their parents generation and let loose in their attire, actions, and attitudes. Young womenÃ cut their hair, shortened their skirts, drank alcohol, smoked, wore makeup, and parked. Dancing also became more uninhibited. Rather than dancing the popular dances of the late 19th century and early 20th century, such as theÃ polka, two-step, or waltz, the freer generation of the Roaring 20s created a new dance craze: the Charleston. Where Did the Dance Originate? Experts in the history of dance believe that some of the Charlestons movements probably came from Trinidad, Nigeria, and Ghana. Its first appearance in the United States was around 1903 in black communities in the southern U.S. It was then used in the Whitman Sisters stage act in 1911, and in Harlem productions by 1913. It did not become internationally popular until the musical Runnin WildÃ debuted in 1923. Although the origins of the dances name are obscure, it has been traced back to blacks who lived on an island off the coast of Charleston, South Carolina. The original version of the dance was much wilder and less stylized than the ballroom version. How Do You Dance the Charleston? The Charleston can be danced by oneself, with a partner, or in a group.Ã The musicÃ for the Charleston is ragtime jazz, in quick 4/4 time with syncopated rhythms. The dance uses swaying arms as well as the fast movement of the feet. The dance has basic footwork and then a number of variations that can be added. To begin the dance, one first steps back with the right foot and then kicks backward with the left foot while the right arm moves forward. Then the left foot steps forward, followed by the right foot, which kicks forward while the right arm moves backward. This is done with a little hop in-between steps and the foot swiveling. After that, it gets more complicated. You can add a knee-up kick into the movement, an arm can go to the floor, or even go side to side with arms on knees. Famous dancer Josephine Baker not only danced the Charleston, but she also added moves to it that made it silly and funny, like crossing her eyes. When she traveled to Paris as part of theÃ La Revue NegreÃ in 1925, she helped make the Charleston famous in Europe as well as the United States. The Charleston became extremely popular in the 1920s, especially with flappers,Ã and is still danced today as part of swing dancing. Sources Howcast. How to Do the Charleston Step | Swing Dance. YouTube, October 1, 2012. Kevin and Karen. How to Dance: The Charleston. YouTube, February 21, 2015. NP channel. 1920s - charleston dance. YouTube, January 13, 2014.
Monday, May 11, 2020
Research paper Trauma is an emotional response to a terrible event like an accident, rape, or natural disaster. Immediately after the event, shock and denial are typical longer term reactions include unpredictable emotions, flashbacks, strained relationships and even physical symptoms like headaches or nausea. While these feelings are normal, some people have difficulty moving on with their lives. Psychologists can help these individuals find constructive ways of managing their emotions. Foster youth go through emotions trauma when they are taking away from their families. The cause of trauma can come before and after entering the foster care system. After the youth, has enter the foster care system, the social worker that is giving to the youth take them to a therapist, so they can be examine to find out what kind of trauma the youth experience. The therapist then set the youth on a plan to help them progress through the trauma. Once the youth placed on the plan, the social worker a nd therapist than review how the youth is doing with the progress. The goal of the foster system is to connect the youth with their parents or family. Although research gives an abundance of evidence declaring trauma a legitimate ailment which evokes intense symptoms, countless individuals overlook the thousands of foster youth that have been through. These are several reasons why children enter foster care. Sadly, many homes have more than one of the following issues why a child enters theShow MoreRelatedQuality of Interpersonal Interactions at the Front Desk Department at the Griffith Hotel2869 Words Ã |Ã 12 Pagesdepartment, such as the night shift and the day shift, and a general absence of empathy among employees. Research shows that empathy can contribute positively to emotional well-being as well as improved levels of customer service by sensitizing employees to the needs, thoughts and feelings of co-workers and clients. It can also promote personal emotional well-being. E mpathy is therefore a necessary skill to be developed in managers as well as front-line employees. With a high level of empathy, MS Samantha
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
string(216) " These included shortages of ammunition and other supplies, an inefficient transportation and distributing system, incompetent military leadership, low morale and desertions, and high land losses and casualty rates\." Introduction: Since revolutions are complex social and political upheavals, historians who write about them are bound to differ on the most basic questionsÃ¢â¬âcauses, revolutionary aims, impact on the society, political outcome, and even the time span of the revolution itself. In the case of the Russian Revolution, the starting-point presents no problem: almost everyone takes it to be the Ã¢â¬Å"February RevolutionÃ¢â¬ of 1917, which led to the abdication of Nicholas II and the formation of the Provisional Government. But when didÃ the Russian RevolutionÃ end? Was it all over by October 1917, when the Bolsheviks took power? Or did the end of the Revolution come with the BolsheviksÃ¢â¬â¢ victory in the Civil War in 1920? Was StalinÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"revolution from aboveÃ¢â¬ part of the Russian Revolution? Or should we take the view that the Revolution continued throughout the lifetime of the Soviet state? Russian Revolution, one of the major events that shaped worldÃ¢â¬â¢s future, overnight destroyed the existing society and replaced it with worldÃ¢â¬â¢s most radical social experiment ever seen. We will write a custom essay sample on Causes of Russian Revolution or any similar topic only for you Order Now Although Russian Revolution is usually acknowledged as one revolution, it in fact consists of two different revolutions. The second one is called the Bolshevik Revolution. Causes of Russian Revolution: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Dissatisfaction with Existing Conditions: The conditions in Russia were not optimistic. Not only was food scarce, the people were forced to pay heavy taxes and the gap between the peasants and the nobles was widening every day. Some people were also dissatisfied with the TsarÃ¢â¬â¢s autocratic rule and wanted him out to be replaced with a more democratic rule. Some felt that other powers were progressing faster than they were and that the Tsar should adopt some of their thinking. Moreover, of course, there were the communists, like the two groups, the Bolsheviks and the Mensheviks. Ã¢â¬ ¢ RussiaÃ¢â¬â¢s defeat in the Russo-Japanese War: Russia took on Japan in 1904, when Japan competed with them for Manchuria and Korea. The Russians were optimistic; as they were sure, their vast superiority of numbers would easily defeat the tiny Japan. But this was not to be. Japan, with their advanced technology destroyed the Russian Army, armed with their Ã¢â¬Å"primitiveÃ¢â¬ weapons as compared to the Asians. This defeat was a great humiliation for Russia. The people lost confidence in the Tsar and the military. Russia, all along priding itself on military excellence, suddenly defeated by Japan. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Bloody Sunday: On Sunday, 22nd January 1905, more than 200 000 workers, led by a priest of the church by the name of Father Gapon, took part in a peaceful demonstration in St. Petersburg (later known as Petrograd, and then Leningrad). They proceeded to the Winter Palace to present a petition to the Tsar regarding better working conditions, medical benefits and more freedom. They also wanted a parliament, or a Duma, to represent their views. The unarmed demonstrators were shot at by the TsarÃ¢â¬â¢s troops. There were many outbursts after that. Troops mutinied, peasants rose up and strikes emerged, all demanding that the Tsar create a Duma and more freedom. In the October Manifesto, the Tsar decided to form a Duma and allow more freedom of speech. This was the TsarÃ¢â¬â¢s real chance to improve peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives by implementing reforms and increasing work condition standards. He could have employed the Duma well to gain him support and yet keep the people happy at the same time. Instead, he made a big mess out of everything. There were four Dumas within the span of 1906 and 1917, and the first three were changed due to the TsarÃ¢â¬â¢s selfishness and hunger for power. All four Dumas were powerless and did not really represent the people at all. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Rasputin: So who IS Rasputin? Well, the story starts off with Alexis, Tsar Nicholas IIÃ¢â¬â¢s son. He suffered from haemophilia, where his blood was unable to clot after bleeding due to a lack of platelets in the blood. Rasputin claimed to be a holy monk from the remote wastelands of Siberia, and was able to use his Ã¢â¬Å"supernatural healing powersÃ¢â¬ to heal Alexis. Granted, Rasputin could ease some of AlexisÃ¢â¬â¢ pain, but most of what he did seemed a scam. The Tsarina (the TsarÃ¢â¬â¢s wife) doted on her son and thus naturally treated the monk better. Rasputin abused his authority and replaced many ministers with his own family and friends, regardless of whether the previous ministers were good. Some of his decision in the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s administration were also foolish and led to many problems. This naturally led to people disliking Rasputin severely and thus blaming the Tsar for his trust in this incompetent person. Ã¢â¬ ¢ World War I: This can be considered as one of the more important reasons for the revolution. Russia was, as we know, one of the most major powers in the world at that time. Up against a Germany that was being attacked from all sides, Russia expected a quick and decisive victory. In actual fact, Russia suffered a series of humiliating defeats. Tsar Nicholas II then decided to take matters into his own hands and take over as Commander in Chief. He went up to the battlefront to direct the battle, in the hope that his Ã¢â¬Å"brilliant tactics,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"marvellous manoeuvringÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"royal presenceÃ¢â¬ would spur the army to victory. Sadly, this was not to be as his lack of military experience and inferior expertise devastated the Russian Army entirely, with the blame left on his shoulders. News of the large casualties and disappointing results of the campaign led to the people blaming the Tsar and losing even more trust in him as the weeks went by. When the Tsar was at the front, the Tsarina Alexandra was in charge of matters back in the capital. Under the influence of Rasputin (again), the Tsarina made many new changes to the administration and plunged the country into further crisis. Furthermore, the Tsarina was a German by birth, and incurred many peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s wrath by doing so. The war effort was hampered greatly by many constant problems. These included shortages of ammunition and other supplies, an inefficient transportation and distributing system, incompetent military leadership, low morale and desertions, and high land losses and casualty rates. You read "Causes of Russian Revolution" in category "Papers" The war was financed through borrowing and printing money instead of raising taxes, as they felt that doing so would cause objections from the already-unhappy people. Wages did not keep pace with inflation, and Ukraine, the largest corn-producing area, was lost in the war. The inefficient railway system was unable to distribute food efficiently. Most of the young men went to fight for the army, leaving the women and elderly to do the work on farms. Additionally, corn prices were fixed, but clothes prices were rising. Many peasants had to go into factories to work. Lousy living conditions made things even worse. Course of Russian Revolution: Ã¢â¬ ¢ It all sparked of when the government held talks with some sea-workers. The workers were asking for better work conditions and pay. However, the talks failed and the workers mutinied. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Furthermore, a few days ago it was International WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Day, where many women gathered to protest against the food scarcity facing them in Russia. Ã¢â¬ ¢ On the day of the revolution itself, many people went on strikes and riots, effectively paralysing more than half of Petrograd. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Soldiers, too, fought half-heartedly as they believed that the government was ineffective. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The people clamoured for a change in the administration, which the Tsar refused to give. Most of the soldiers then joined the strikes, with only a handful of patrols still remaining loyal to the Tsar. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The Duma, desperate for peace and change, forced the Tsar to make a decision immediately Ã¢â¬â change the administration or pass on power. The Tsar decided to abdicate in favour of his brother, Grand Duke Michael. The Grand Duke refused the throne, and the Duma formed a democratic Provisional Government on a temporary basis, thus ending the reign of the Romanov monarchy. Causes of Bolshevik Revolution: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Failure of the Provisional Government: The Provisional Government was only a temporary government meant to take care of the empire until it could hold elections for a Constituent Assembly which would draw up a constitution for Russia. However, it was not confident enough of itself to implement mass reforms and such, as it was not elected, but self-appointed and temporary. After the revolution, many people expected democracy and an elected parliament. However, the Provisional Government delayed the elections and this lost them a lot of support. They claimed that so many people were away fighting that it was not possible to hold elections. While this was going on, so was the war. While the war-weary people wanted the war to end, the Provisional Government felt that victory would boost morale. However, more defeats meant that hundreds of soldiers deserted and more support lost. The people wanted many reforms, most importantly land reforms, as the majority of the population Ã¢â¬â the peasants, wanted the lands of the aristocrats. However, the reluctant and wary government, as mentioned earlier, did not want to do so in order to consolidate their position first. The government also inherited the problems of the TsarÃ¢â¬â¢s, as they had to face inflation and food shortages. The government was also humiliated many times by their own inability to deal with problems. In the cities, workers formed groups called the Petrograd Soviet, a form of workersÃ¢â¬â¢ union. The Petrograd Soviet called upon all soldiers to obey them, and thus the government became reliant on them. This can be seen in the example of the Kornilov incident, where the rogue commander-in-chief Kornilov turned on the government with his troops. The government had to turn to the Petrograd Soviet for help, and they promptly replied with their own forces, known as the Red Guard, by driving away Kornilov and his troops quickly. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The Appeal of the Bolshevik Party: The Bolsheviks were one of the communist parties in Russia at that time. Their leader was a man known as Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, and was a great fan of MarxÃ¢â¬â¢s. He had been influenced by MarxÃ¢â¬â¢s socialist writings and wished to transform Russia into the ideal communist state. He was originally exiled from Russia during monarchical reign, but returned to Russia in April 1917. At this time, the Provisional Government had freed political prisoners and loosened up their hold on the press. The Okhrana was also disbanded. All this made it easier for Lenin to carry out his revolutionary activities. He was able to organise the party better with party communities all over Russia and in the army. At the same time, Lenin found a talent in a person called Leon Trotsky. Trotsky used to be on the side of the Mensheviks, another communist group but was more on the side of taking things slower and not having a revolution so early. Trotsky however opposed this view and joined the Bolsheviks instead. Lenin found that Trotsky was highly capable, both in speaking and in military expertise. He entrusted Trotsky with the job of organising the Bolshevik troops, the Red Army. He also found some qualities in a man called Joseph Stalin. Although less capable than Trotsky in speaking, he was reliable and not so flamboyant. Stalin took charge of the party newspaper,Ã Pravda (Truth), which spread Bolshevik propaganda and news. Lenin often made speeches to the people. He told them about his ideas for Russia, encapsulated in three basic points: Ã¢â¬Å"Peace, Bread and Land. Not only that, he also opposed the government violently and wanted the immediate transfer of power to the Bolsheviks. This, and the Bolshevik slogan, made them so appealing that they gained power so rapidly and the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s hold on Russia began to slide. The slogan of Ã¢â¬Å"PeaceÃ¢â¬ was probably the most attractive offer to the Russian people. Almost everybody wanted the war to stop, as it had dragged on for too long. The devastated economy and dwindling food supplies were all caused by the war, and people wished to return to their lives, just as before the war. Lenin knew this and aptly used this as a slogan for his campaign. Being the only party which constantly opposed the continuation of the war, the Bolsheviks attracted many supporters. The Ã¢â¬Å"BreadÃ¢â¬ problem was not being met by the government, but the Bolsheviks promised that they would deal with it. Lenin promised to provide the people with sufficient food, and the starving population turned to him for help. Ã¢â¬Å"LandÃ¢â¬ was another point well handled by Lenin. Most peasants were furious with the government and the landowners for not giving the peasants a chance to earn their own money with their own land. Lenin, however, in accordance with the communist ideology, promised that the landownersÃ¢â¬â¢ property would be split up and distributed equally, naturally attracting mass support from the majority of the population. As LeninÃ¢â¬â¢s support grew, and membership increased tenfold in 8 months, so did dissatisfaction with the government. In July, during a period known as the Ã¢â¬Å"July Days,Ã¢â¬ a political crisis erupted as soldiers in Petrograd refused to go to the front and sailors joined the workers in anti-government demonstrations. These people were mostly Bolshevik supporters, and these riots were no doubt sparked off by party instigators. However, they were delivered a crushing defeat when the government managed to suppress the demonstrations and arrested a few leading Bolsheviks. Lenin himself was shot twice in the chest from close range, but survived to escape to Finland. However, this event goes to show that the Bolsheviks were gaining a lot of support and would soon be able to take power. Course of Bolshevik Revolution: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Trotsky did the detailed organisation of the Bolshevik revolution. He planned very systematically the seizure of important government buildings and strategic locations by the Red Army. The government knew very well that a revolution was being planned, but were so inefficient and disorganised that they could do nothing about it. Ã¢â¬ ¢ In the end, Lenin returned to Russia on the 23rd of October and thus, the Bolshevik Revolution began. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Trotsky and the Red Army began by getting the support of the Petrograd garrison, and together they seized important railway stations, the telephone e xchange and bridges. Ã¢â¬ ¢ They met with no resistance all the way from the Smolny Institute where the Bolshevik headquarters was, to the Winter Palace. Ã¢â¬ ¢ There, the few remaining loyal troops were defending the Palace bravely. However, their resistance collapsed quickly as theÃ AuroraÃ fired warning shots (some people say its guns were too pathetic to even reach the walls of the Palace). Ã¢â¬ ¢ Government members were arrested and the head, Alexander Kerensky, escaped. Ã¢â¬ ¢ By the 26th of that month, the Bolsheviks had taken Petrograd. After another month, they controlled Russia. The reason why the Bolsheviks were so successful was because other groups like the Social Revolutionaries and the Mensheviks were hesitant in leading a revolution after February. They were willing to work together with the Provisional Government for the good of the people. The Bolsheviks, branding them as traitors, eventually used this cooperative mentality against them. Not only that, they also supported the government in their continuation of the war, and this worked against them too. All this brought the Bolsheviks support from many workers and soldiers in Moscow and Petrograd. However, the Bolsheviks did not have the full support of ALL people in Russia. It was LeninÃ¢â¬â¢s and the BolshevikÃ¢â¬â¢s task to extend and maintain their control over the vast empire they had inherited. Conclusion: When there is proliferation of crime, poverty and mass discrimination, people of the nation rebel. Although the people of Russia didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have a say in the political issues, they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t protest. However, once they became deprived of their economical rights, along with the assiduous wars, their wrath grew. It grew to such an extend that it overthrew the monarch of a dynasty that has been ruling for over 300 yrs. But Russian Revolution is an classic example that people have the supreme power for the Russians overthrew the administration of the nation, not once; but two times in a span of 3 yrs (although the suffering had been since 19th century). Bibliography/ Acknowledgements: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Google Images http://www. factmonster. com/encyclopedia/history/russian-revolution-causes. html Ã¢â¬ ¢ http://www. bbc. co. uk/schools/gcsebitesize/history/mwh/russia/longtermcausesrev1. shtml Ã¢â¬ ¢ http://answers. yahoo. com/question/index? qid=20110317174148AA2efvO Ã¢â¬ ¢ http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Russian_Revolution Ã¢â¬ ¢ http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Bolshevik Ã¢â¬ ¢ http:/ /europeanhistory. about. com/od/russiaandukraine/a/Causes-Of-The-Russian-Revolution. htm Ã¢â¬ ¢ http://www. youtube. com/watch? v=2WxNQLr2dKA Ã¢â¬ ¢ http://history1900s. about. com/od/Russian-Revolution/a/Russian-Revolution-Timeline. htm How to cite Causes of Russian Revolution, Papers
Thursday, April 30, 2020
thanksgiving dinner Essay Every year millions of people all across the country come together for a very special day in Americas heritage and culture. This day is full of thanks and is used to give thanks for all that they have been blessed with. This is called Thanksgiving, and food is a big part of this day. On thanksgiving people will usually eat the traditional thanksgiving dinner Essay. This usually includes Turkey, cranberry sauce, stuffing, mashed potatoes, and gravy. It is a special dinner that usually happens about once a year. The Turkey is probably the most important dish in the Thanksgiving dinner, families usually will buy a turkey at the store, but some may choose buying a live turkey or hunting for their turkey, the turkey must be cooked slowly and has to be moist and juicy, if it is too dry, it is not very tasty. Cranberry sauce can be made from scratch, but a lot of people buy it already made in a can, this can usually be picked up at the grocery store or another type of food store. The mashed potatoes should be made of real potatoes; they are usually topped with some kind of gravy. Stuffing is also a main part of the dish, it is usually cooked inside of the turkey, and it is made of bread and vegetables. So if you are going to have a thanksgiving feast these are the main foods that you will be dining on. We will write a custom essay on thanksgiving dinner specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now .
Saturday, March 21, 2020
The Phospolipid Bilayer essays Our cell membrane is made up of a dispersion of different proteins onto a 2 dimensional fluid of lipids, compounded mainly of phospholipids, a class of membrane lipids that are amphipathic in their properties, meaning that they are both hydrophilic and hydrophobic (Ratto, 2002). Of all the phospholipids, the most common type that makes up most cell membranes is phosphatidylcholine, which has a hydrophilic head group and two hydrophobic hydrocarbon tails (Alberts et al, 1998, p349). Because of their hydrophobic nature, the hydrocarbon tails resist against the aqueous environment, thus, forcing away from it leaving the hydrophilic head groups exposed to the aqueous environment, hence, forming a bilayer (Alberts et al, 1998, p350). The hydrophilic head groups face the outside environment and the hydrophobic tails face each other (Hanke and Schlue, 1993). The main focus is, however, the fluidity of the phospholipid bilayer and a disease involving the phospholipid bilayer called Antip hospholipid Syndrome. The phospholipids in membranes are fluid because they can move laterally from one place to another in the plane of the bilayer without being restrained (Alberts et al, 1998, p352); hence, scientists named the phospholipid bilayer The Fluid Mosaic Model (Hanke and Schlue 1993). The only movement that they cannot do is flip-flop from one leaflet of the membrane to another; therefore, in order for the phospholipids to be transferred from one leaflet to another, the enzyme flipase is required to catalyze this transfer (Alberts et al, 1998, p352). One experiment that scientists manipulated to prove this was the Fluorescent Recovery After Photo-Bleaching (FRAP) experiment (Bultmann, T. et al, 1991). On a region of the cell surface, scientists labeled it by fluoresce and by doing this, the fluorochrome of the dye will covalently attach to the lipid or protein molecules. When this region is illumina ...
Wednesday, March 4, 2020
Overview of the Poem Beowulf Below is a summary of all the events that transpire in the Old English epic poem, Beowulf. Beowulf is considered the oldest survivingÃ poem in the English language.Ã A Kingdom in Peril The story begins in Denmark with King Hrothgar, the descendant of the great Scyld Sheafson and a successful ruler in his own right. To display his prosperity and generosity, Hrothgar built a magnificent hall called Heorot. There his warriors, the Scyldings, gathered to drink mead, receive treasures from the king after a battle, and listen to scops sing songs of brave deeds. But lurking nearby was a hideous and brutal monster named Grendel. One night when the warriors were sleeping, sated from their feast, Grendel attacked, butchering 30 men and wreaking devastation in the hall. Hrothgar and his Scyldings were overwhelmed with sorrow and dismay, but they could do nothing; for the next night Grendel returned to kill again. The Scyldings tried to stand up to Grendel, but none of their weapons harmed him. They sought the help of their pagan gods, but no help was forthcoming. Night after night Grendel attacked Heorot and the warriors who defended it, slaying many brave men, until the Scyldings ceased fighting and simply abandoned the hall each sunset. Grendel then began attacking the lands around Heorot, terrorizing the Danes for the next 12 years. A Hero Comes to Heorot Many tales were told, and songs are sung of the horror that had overtaken Hrothgars kingdom, and word spread as far as the kingdom of the Geats (southwest Sweden). There one of King Hygelacs retainers, Beowulf, heard the story of Hrothgars dilemma. Hrothgar had once done a favor for Beowulfs father, Ecgtheow, and so, perhaps feeling indebted, and certainly inspired by the challenge of overcoming Grendel, Beowulf determined to travel to Denmark and fight the monster. Beowulf was dear to Hygelac and the elder Geats, and they were loath to see him go, yet they did not hinder him in his endeavor. The young man assembled a band of 14 worthy warriors to accompany him to Denmark, and they set sail. Arriving at Heorot, they petitioned to see Hrothgar, and once inside the hall, Beowulf made an earnest speech requesting the honor of facing Grendel, and promising to fight the fiend without weapons or shield. Hrothgar welcomed Beowulf and his comrades and honored him with a feast. Amidst the drinking and camaraderie, a jealous Scylding named Unferth taunted Beowulf, accusing him of losing a swimming race to his childhood friend Breca, and sneering that he had no chance against Grendel. Beowulf boldly responded with the gripping tale of how he not only won the race but slew many horrible sea-beasts in the process. The Geats confident response reassured the Scyldings. Then Hrothgars queen, Wealhtheow, made an appearance, and Beowulf vowed to her that hed slay Grendel or die trying. For the first time in years, Hrothgar and his retainers had cause to hope, and a festive atmosphere settled over Heorot. Then, after an evening of feasting and drinking, the king and his fellow Danes bid Beowulf and his companions good luck and departed. The heroic Geat and his brave comrades settled down for the night in the beleaguered mead-hall. Though every last Geat followed Beowulf willingly into this adventure, none of them truly believed they would see home again. Grendel When all but one of the warriors had fallen asleep, Grendel approached Heorot. The door to the hall swung open at his touch, but rage boiled up within him, and he tore it apart and bounded inside. Before anyone could move, he grabbed one of the sleeping Geats, rent him into pieces and devoured him, slurping his blood. Next, he turned to Beowulf, raising a claw to attack. But Beowulf was ready. He sprang up from his bench and caught Grendel in a fearsome grip, the like of which the monster had never known. Try as he might, Grendel could not loosen Beowulfs hold; he backed away, growing afraid. In the meantime, the other warriors in the hall attacked the fiend with their swords; but this had no effect. They couldnt have known that Grendel was invulnerable to any weapon forged by man. It was Beowulfs strength that overcame the creature; and though he struggled with everything he had to escape, causing the very timbers of Heorot to shudder, Grendel could not break free from the grip of Beowulf. As the monster weakened and the hero stood firm, the fight, at last, came to a horrific end when Beowulf ripped Grendels entire arm and shoulder from his body. The fiend fled, bleeding, to die in his lair in the swamp, and the victorious Geats hailed Beowulfs greatness. Celebrations With the sunrise came joyous Scyldings and clan chiefs from near and far. Hrothgars minstrel arrived and wove Beowulfs name and deeds into songs old and new. He told a tale of a dragon slayer and compared Beowulf to other great heroes of ages past. Some time was spent considering the wisdom of a leader placing himself in danger instead of sending younger warriors to do his bidding. The king arrived in all his majesty and made a speech thanking God and praising Beowulf. He announced his adoption of the hero as his son, and Wealhtheow added her approval, while Beowulf sat between her boys as if he were their brother. In the face of Beowulfs grisly trophy, Unferth had nothing to say. Hrothgar ordered that Heorot be refurbished, and everyone threw themselves into repairing and brightening the great hall. A magnificent feast followed, with more stories and poems, more drinking and good fellowship. The king and queen bestowed great gifts on all the Geats, but especially on the man who had saved them from Grendel, who received among his prizes a magnificent golden torque. As the day drew to a close, Beowulf was led off to separate quarters in honor of his heroic status. Scyldings bedded down in the great hall, as they had in the days before Grendel, now with their Geat comrades among them. But although the beast that had terrorized them for more than a decade was dead, another danger lurked in the darkness. A New Threat Grendels mother, enraged and seeking revenge, struck while the warriors slept. Her attack was barely any less terrible than those of her son had been. She grabbed Aeschere, Hrothgars most valued advisor, and, crushing his body in a deadly grip, she raced away into the night, snatching the trophy of her sons arm before she escaped. The attack had happened so quickly and unexpectedly that both the Scyldings and the Geats were at a loss. It soon became clear that this monster had to be stopped, and that Beowulf was the man to stop her. Hrothgar himself led a party of men in pursuit of the fiend, whose trail was marked by her movements and Aescheres blood. Soon the trackers came to the ghastly swamp, where dangerous creatures swam in a filthy viscous fluid, and where Aescheres head lay on the banks to further shock and appall all who beheld it. Beowulf armed himself for an underwater battle, donning finely-woven mail armor and a princely golden helm that had never failed to thwart any blade. Unferth, no longer jealous, lent him a battle-tested sword of great antiquity called Hrunting. After requesting that Hrothgar take care of his companions should he fail to defeat the monster, and naming Unferth as his heir, Beowulf plunged into the revolting lake. Grendels Mother It took hours for Beowulf to reach the lair of the fiends. He survived many attacks from awful swamp creatures, thanks to his armor and his swift swimming skill. At last, as he neared the monsters hiding place, she sensed Beowulfs presence and dragged him inside. In the firelight the hero beheld the hellish creature, and wasting no time, he drew Hrunting and dealt her a thunderous blow to her head. But the worthy blade, never before bested in battle, failed to harm Grendels mother. Beowulf tossed the weapon aside and attacked her with his bare hands, throwing her to the ground. But Grendels mother was swift and resilient; she rose to her feet and gripped him in a horrible embrace. The hero was shaken; he stumbled and fell, and the fiend pounced upon him, drew a knife and stabbed down. But Beowulfs armor deflected the blade. He struggled to his feet to face the monster again. And then something caught his eye in the murky cave: a gigantic sword that few men could wield. Beowulf seized the weapon in a rage, swung it fiercely in a wide arc, and hacked deep into the monsters neck, severing her head and toppling her to the ground. With the death of the creature, an uncanny light brightened the cave, and Beowulf could take stock of his surroundings. He saw Grendels corpse and, still raging from his battle; he hacked off its head. Then, as the toxic blood of the monsters melted the blade of the awesome sword, he noticed piles of treasure; but Beowulf took none of it, bringing back only the hilt of the great weapon and Grendels head as he began his swim back. A Triumphant Return So long had it taken for Beowulf to swim to the monsters lair and defeat her that the Scyldings had given up hope and gone back to Heorot- but the Geats stayed on. Beowulf hauled his gory prize through water that was clearer and no longer infested with horrible creatures. When he finally swam to shore, his cohorts greeted him with unrestrained joy. They escorted him back to Heorot; it took four men to carry Grendels severed head. As might be expected, Beowulf was hailed once more as a great hero upon his return to the splendid mead-hall. The young Geat presented the ancient sword-hilt to Hrothgar, who was moved to make a serious speech exhorting Beowulf to be mindful of how fragile life could be, as the king himself knew all too well. More festivities followed before the great Geat could take to his bed. Now the danger was truly gone, and Beowulf could sleep easy. Geatland The next day the Geats made ready to return home. More gifts were bestowed upon them by their grateful hosts, and speeches were made full of praise and warm feelings. Beowulf pledged to serve Hrothgar in any way he might need him in the future, and Hrothgar proclaimed that Beowulf was fit to be king of the Geats. The warriors sailed off, their ship filled with treasure, their hearts full of admiration for the Scylding king. Back in Geatland, King Hygelac greeted Beowulf with relief and bid him to tell him and his court everything of his adventures. This the hero did, in detail. He then presented Hygelac with all the treasures Hrothgar and the Danes had bestowed upon him. Hygelac made a speech recognizing how much greater a man Beowulf had proven himself to be than any of the elders had realized, though they had always loved him well. The King of the Geats bestowed a precious sword on the hero and gave him tracts of land to govern. The golden torque Beowulf had presented him would be around Hygelacs neck the day he died. A Dragon Awakes Fifty years went by. The deaths of Hygelac and his only son and heir meant that the crown of Geatland passed to Beowulf. The hero ruled wisely and well over a prosperous land. Then a great peril awoke. A fleeing slave, seeking refuge from a hard master, stumbled upon a hidden passageway that led to the lair of a dragon. Sneaking quietly through the sleeping beasts treasure hoard, the slave snatched a single jewel-encrusted cup before escaping in terror. He returned to his lord and proffered his find, hoping to be reinstated. The master agreed, little knowing what price the kingdom would pay for his slaves transgression. When the dragon woke up, it knew instantly it had been robbed, and it vented its fury on the land. Scorching crops and livestock, devastating homes, the dragon raged across Geatland. Even the kings mighty stronghold was burnt to a cinder. The King Prepares to Fight Beowulf wanted revenge, but he also knew he had to stop the beast to ensure the safety of his kingdom. He refused to raise an army but prepared for battle himself. He ordered a special iron shield to be made, tall and able to withstand the flames, and took up his ancient sword, Naegling. Then he gathered eleven warriors to accompany him to the lair of the dragon. Upon discovering the identity of the thief whod snatched the cup, Beowulf pressed him into service as a guide to the hidden passageway. Once there, he charged his companions to wait and watch. This was to be his battle and his alone. The old hero-king had a foreboding of his death, but he pressed onward, courageous as always, to the dragons lair. Over the years, Beowulf had won many a battle through strength, through skill, and through perseverance. He was still possessed of all these qualities, and yet, victory was to elude him. The iron shield gave way too soon, and Naegling failed to pierce the dragons scales, though the power of the blow he dealt the creature caused it to spew flame in rage and pain. But the unkindest cut of all was the desertion of all but one of his thanes. The Last Loyal Warrior Seeing that Beowulf had failed to overcome the dragon, ten of the warriors who had pledged their loyalty, who had received gifts of weapons and armor, treasure, and land from their king, broke ranks and ran to safety. Only Wiglaf, Beowulfs young kinsman, stood his ground. After chastising his cowardly companions, he ran to his lord, armed with shield and sword, and joined in the desperate battle that would be Beowulfs last. Wiglaf spoke words of honor and encouragement to the king just before the dragon attacked fiercely again, flaming the warriors and charring the younger mans shield until it was useless. Inspired by his kinsman and by thoughts of glory, Beowulf put all his considerable strength behind his next blow; Naegling met the dragons skull, and the blade snapped. The hero had never had much use for edged weapons, his strength so overpowering that he could easily damage them; and this happened now, at the worst possible time. The dragon attacked once more, this time sinking its teeth into Beowulfs neck. The heros body was soaked red with his blood. Now Wiglaf came to his aid, running his sword into the dragons belly, weakening the creature. With one last, great effort, the king drew a knife and drove it deep into the dragons side, dealing it a death blow. The Death of Beowulf Beowulf knew he was dying. He told Wiglaf to go into the dead beasts lair and bring back some of the treasure. The young man returned with heaps of gold and jewels and a brilliant gold banner. The king looked at the riches and told the young man that it was a good thing to have this treasure for the kingdom. He then made Wiglaf his heir, giving him his golden torque, his armor, and helm. The great hero died by the gruesome corpse of the dragon. A huge barrow was built on the headland of the coast, and when the ashes from Beowulfs pyre had cooled, the remains were housed inside it. Mourners bewailed the loss of the great king, whose virtues and deeds were extolled that none might ever forget him.
Monday, February 17, 2020
Employee Turnover - Essay Example Galvin (2004) asserts that turnover is "a modern business dilemma that is costing companies billions of dollars annually, yet surprisingly little is done about it." For businesses seeking to optimize their bottom line, particularly in the retail industry, getting this problem under control can translate into dramatic improvement in profitability and competitiveness. Understanding the particular costs of turnover to each business is an essential first step in determining the extent to which it is even a problem that needs to be addressed, and if so what is the appropriate approach to addressing the problem. This paper examines the reasons for higher rates of turnover in retail generally as compared to many other industries. It goes on to propose solutions and strategies retailers can adopt to decrease employee turnover and improve their bottom line. The direct costs of turnover are easy to quantify, according to Galvin. These are recruitment expenses such as classified ads and headhunter fees, training expenses, "travel or relocation expenses, interviewing, overtime for employees who take on departing employees' tasks, and all the related administrative functions that go into the grand exit and entrance." These costs are merely the "tip of the iceberg," however, as there are numerous indirect costs that are often not even considered. These include lost business from unhappy customers who are driven away by compromised service quantity and quality, resulting in lost business. Also, there is usually some lost productivity resulting from the need for other employees to pick up the slack in addition to their own jobs. Finally, the diversion of management attention from strategic planning to devising ways to make up the shortfall left by departing workers yields an opportunity cost for the business (Galvin, 2004). What strategic and competitive strides could have been made had management not been preoccupied with filling gaps from employee turnover An additional indirect cost of turnover in a retail environment is missed sales due to inexperience of new staff or due to the lack of adequate available staff to take care of all customers efficiently. Kal Lifson (1996) asserts that an "inexperienced sales associate loses 10% of the sales dollars that a veteran associate would have made." That is an enormous impact that is often not even accounted for by companies concerned with the financial impact of turnover. "Turnover takes a huge bite from the bottom line. Large merchants spend an average of $77 million a year in severance and other departure related costs, and lose another $161 million in potential revenue due to such factors as new employee mistakes," maintains Leigh Dyer (2002). The story on turnover is not all bad. Businesses arguably need some fresh blood in order to remain dynamic. New people bring fresh ideas and approaches to the business. Companies with zero turnover risk being stagnant and stodgy in a very competitive industry that is largely based on a clientele attracted to the young, the hip and the trendy. "New employees do bring in new ideas and keep the organization fresh and current" (Zografos, 2006). In addition, some level of turnover helps businesses to understand the driving factors behind employee retention, enabling them to respond more effectively when the inevitable departure does take place. Low-turnover businesses can "focus on why employees